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During the first decade of this new millennium, it is estimated that more than EUR100 billion will be invested in the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) in Europe. This fact represents an amazing challenge from both a technical and commercial perspective. Written by experts in the field, this book gives a detailed description of the elements in the UMTS network architecture: the User Equipment (UE), the UMTS Radio Access Network (UTRAN) and the core network. The completely new protocols based on the needs of the new Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) air interface are highlighted by considering both Frequency- and Time-Division Duplex modes. The book further introduces the key features of existing topics in Releases 5, 6 and 7.
This comprehensive scientific work embraces, within the generic theme of "educations, territorialities and territories", the vast majority of different facets of the complex relationships between educations and territories that have developed over time. It sheds an original light on the many - and, for some, new - interactions between territories-territories, on the one hand, and educations, on the other hand, which have recently been identified and analyzed. Beyond this main objective, it contributes to improving the fine and differentiated understanding of the concept of territory in the sciences of education and training and, more importantly, it brings innovative developments to the still embryonic theorization of the complex relations between educations. and territories-territorialities. This book shows, in particular, through its surveys, its analyzes and its results, that within all the multiple influences attributed to the different dimensions of the territories, the very discrete territoriality - falling within the symbolic territory - is perhaps finally the the most important territorial vector in terms of education in certain areas (rural Montagnards, for example), particularly as regards educational and vocational guidance, but not only. Lastly, it is not uninteresting to note that the theme it bears is spreading more and more today beyond scientific circles: the problem of inequalities in education and orientation of territorial origin is fueling - recently - the controversies and the reflections of the French educational policy which is thus sometimes echoed - in declarative terms essentially for the moment! - scientific advances in this area
The book deals with requirements engineering in the context of System Engineering. He proposes a method to guide this activity engineering. The method is supported by the SysML modeling language. A first chapter aims to present the context and the associated definitions, to position the requirements engineering in the processes system engineering, to define the modeling and its contributions, and to make the link with the management of IS projects. The second chapter is devoted to the proposed method for implementing the requirements engineering subprocesses. Each of the 8 activities the component is first described before specifying how the SysML language can be exploited to achieve it effectively. Proposal for a book Please fill out the questionnaire below and send it back to Chantal Menascé: firstname.lastname@example.org The 3rd chapter is an application of the method to define the needs of the stakeholders of a system. The example is built on the basis of the RobAFIS'2018 competition. The 4th chapter continues the application of the method in the continuity of the IS processes to define the requirements of the same system. The appendices present at the same time a toolbox to realize the engineering of the requirements but also the complete results of engineering in Chapters 3 and 4.
The book studies the way the luxurious fashion develops re-presentational politics by reinvesting symbolic fields such as art and culture, religion and the sacred as well as politics, in other words fields that represent a certain common pattern of life and a common interest. I develop a semiotic approach of the way art exhibitions, print and audiovisual advertising, publishing and distribution politics as well as special ready to wear collaborations with arts such as Jeff Koons reveal the fashion industry's gesture of pretending being a non-commercial structure especially in order to cover up its industrialisation and banalization process
The humanities and social sciences are interested in the cybersecurity object since its emergence in the security debates, at the beginning of the 2000s. This scientific production is thus still relatively young, but diversified, mobilizing at the same time political science, international relations, sociology , law, information science, security studies, surveillance studies, strategic studies, polemology. There is, however, no actual cybersecurity studies. After two decades of scientific production on this subject, we thought it essential to take stock of the research methods that could be mobilized, imagined and invented by the researchers. The research methodology on the subject "cybersecurity" has, paradoxically, been the subject of relatively few publications to date. This dimension is essential. It is the initial phase by which any researcher, seasoned or young doctoral student, must pass, to define his subject of study, delimit the contours, ask the research questions, and choose the methods of treatment. It is this methodological dimension that our book proposes to treat. The questions the authors were asked to answer were: how can cybersecurity be defined? What disciplines in the humanities and social sciences are studying, and how, cybersecurity? What is the place of pluralism or interdisciplinarity? How are the research topics chosen, the questions defined? How, concretely, to study cybersecurity: tools, methods, theories, organization of research, research fields, data ...? How are discipline-specific theories useful for understanding and studying cybersecurity? Has cybersecurity had an impact on scientific theories?
Manufacturing industries strive to improve the quality and reliability of their products, while simultaneously reducing production costs. To do this, modernized work tools must be produced; this will enable a reduction in the duration of the product development cycle, optimization of product development procedures, and ultimately improvement in the productivity of design and manufacturing phases. Numerical simulations of forming processes are used to this end, and in this book various methods and models for forming processes (including stamping, hydroforming and additive manufacturing) are presented. The theoretical and numerical advances of these processes involving large deformation mechanics on the basis of large transformations are explored, in addition to the various techniques for optimization and calculation of reliability. The advances and techniques within this book will be of interest to professional engineers in the automotive, aerospace, defence and other industries, as well as graduates and undergraduates in these fields.
Accompanying the present trend of engineering systems aimed at size reduction and design at microscopic/nanoscopic length scales, Mechanics of Dislocation Fields describes the self-organization of dislocation ensembles at small length scales and its consequences on the overall mechanical behavior of crystalline bodies. The account of the fundamental interactions between the dislocations and other microscopic crystal defects is based on the use of smooth field quantities and powerful tools from the mathematical theory of partial differential equations. The resulting theory is able to describe the emergence of dislocation microstructures and their evolution along complex loading paths. Scale transitions are performed between the properties of the dislocation ensembles and the mechanical behavior of the body. Several variants of this overall scheme are examined which focus on dislocation cores, electromechanical interactions of dislocations with electric charges in dielectric materials, the intermittency and scale-invariance of dislocation activity, grain-to-grain interactions in polycrystals, size effects on mechanical behavior and path dependence of strain hardening.
This is an introduction to stochastic integration and stochastic differential equations written in an understandable way for a wide audience, from students of mathematics to practitioners in biology, chemistry, physics, and finances. The presentation is based on the naïve stochastic integration, rather than on abstract theories of measure and stochastic processes. The proofs are rather simple for practitioners and, at the same time, rather rigorous for mathematicians. Detailed application examples in natural sciences and finance are presented. Much attention is paid to simulation diffusion processes.
The topics covered include Brownian motion; motivation of stochastic models with Brownian motion; Itô and Stratonovich stochastic integrals, Itô's formula; stochastic differential equations (SDEs); solutions of SDEs as Markov processes; application examples in physical sciences and finance; simulation of solutions of SDEs (strong and weak approximations). Exercises with hints and/or solutions are also provided.
Optimization is generally a reduction operation of a definite quantity. This process naturally takes place in our environment and through our activities. For example, many natural systems evolve, in order to minimize their potential energy. Modeling these phenomena then largely relies on our capacity to artificially reproduce these processes. In parallel, optimization problems have quickly emerged from human activities, notably from economic concerns. This book includes the most recent ideas coming from research and industry in the field of optimization, reliability and the recognition of accompanying uncertainties. It is made up of eight chapters which look at the reviewing of uncertainty tools, system reliability, optimal design of structures and their optimization (of sizing, form, topology and multi-objectives) - along with their robustness and issues on optimal safety factors. Optimization reliability coupling will also be tackled in order to take into account the uncertainties in the modeling and resolution of the problems encountered. The book is aimed at students, lecturers, engineers, PhD students and researchers. Contents 1. Uncertainty.
2. Reliability in Mechanical Systems.
3. Optimal Structural Design.
4. Multi-object Optimization with Uncertainty.
5. Robust Optimization.
6. Reliability Optimization.
7. Optimal Security Factors Approach.
8. Reliability-based Topology Optimization. About the Authors Abdelkhalak El Hami is Professor at the Institut National des Sciences Appliquées, Rouen, France. He is the author of many articles and books on optimization and uncertainty.
Bouchaib Radi is Professor in the Faculty of Sciences and Technology at the University of Hassan Premier, Settat, Morocco. His research interests are in such areas as structural optimization, parallel computation, contact problem and metal forming. He is the author of many scientific articles and books.
Lithography is an extremely complex tool - based on the concept of "imprinting" an original template version onto mass output - originally using relatively simple optical exposure, masking, and etching techniques, and now extended to include exposure to X-rays, high energy UV light, and electron beams - in processes developed to manufacture everyday products including those in the realms of consumer electronics, telecommunications, entertainment, and transportation, to name but a few. In the last few years, researchers and engineers have pushed the envelope of fields including optics, physics, chemistry, mechanics and fluidics, and are now developing the nanoworld with new tools and technologies. Beyond the scientific challenges that are endemic in this miniaturization race, next generation lithography techniques are essential for creating new devices, new functionalities and exploring new application fields. Nanolithography is the branch of nanotechnology concerned with the study and application of fabricating nanometer-scale structures - meaning the creation of patterns with at least one lateral dimension between the size of an individual atom and approximately 100 nm. It is used in the fabrication of leading-edge semiconductor integrated circuits (nanocircuitry) or nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).
This book addresses physical principles as well as the scientific and technical challenges of nanolithography, covering X-ray and NanoImprint lithography, as well as techniques using scanning probe microscopy and the optical properties of metal nanostructures, patterning with block copolymers, and metrology for lithography. It is written for engineers or researchers new to the field, and will help readers to expand their knowledge of technologies that are constantly evolving.
The aim of this book is to give a broad overview of the TLM (Transmission Line Matrix) method, which is one of the "time-domain numerical methods". These methods are reputed for their significant reliance on computer resources. However, they have the advantage of being highly general.
The TLM method has acquired a reputation for being a powerful and effective tool by numerous teams and still benefits today from significant theoretical developments. In particular, in recent years, its ability to simulate various situations with excellent precision, including complex materials, has been demonstrated.
Application examples are included in the last two chapters of the book, enabling the reader to draw conclusions regarding the performance of the implemented techniques and, at the same time, to validate them. Contents 1. Basis of the TLM Method: the 2D TLM Method.
2. 3D Nodes.
3. Introduction of Discrete Elements and Thin Wires in the TLM Method.
4. The TLM Method in Matrix Form and the Z Transform.
Appendix A. Development of Maxwell's Equations using the Z Transform with a Variable Mesh.
Appendix B. Treatment of Plasma using the Z Transform for the TLM Method.
The term Mechatronics is a combination of the words "mechanics" and "electronics". It is the blending of mechanical, electronic, and computer engineering into an integrated design and implementation. Mechatronics systems employ microprocessors and software as well as special-purpose electronics.
The main objective of this interdisciplinary engineering field is the study of automated devices (e.g. robots) from an engineering perspective, thinking about the design of products and manufacturing processes. Today, mechatronics is having a significant and increasing impact on engineering - in the design, development, and operation of engineering systems. Mechatronics systems and products are well established in a great number of industries, such as the aircraft, automotive, computer, electronics, robotics/automation, manufacturing systems, computerized machine tools, communications, and biomedical industries.
This book provides details on recent advances in mechatronics, and can be used as a guidebook for final undergraduate engineering courses (for example, mechanical, electronic, computer engineering) or as a reference to the subject of mechatronics at the postgraduate level. It can also serve as a useful reference for academics, mechatronics researchers, mechanical, electronic and computer engineers, and professionals in areas related to mechatronics and robotics.
RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology allows for automatic identification of information contained in a tag by scanning and interrogation using radio frequency (RF) waves.
An RFID tag contains an antenna and a microchip that allows it to transmit and receive. This technology is a possible alternative to the use of barcodes, which are frequently inadequate in the face of rapid growth in the scale and complexity of just-in-time inventory requirements, regional and international trade, and emerging new methods of trade based on it. Use of RFID tags will likely eventually become as widespread as barcodes today.
This book describes the technologies used for implementation of RFID: from hardware, communication protocols, cryptography, to applications (including electronic product codes, or EPC) and middleware.
The five parts of this book will provide the reader with a detailed description of all the elements that make up a RFID system today, including hot topics such as the privacy concerns, and the Internet of Things.
The question of trust is crucial in the field of health. First, because health is indicative of particularly strong issues at the societal, regulatory, institutional or individual levels; secondly, because the boundaries between specialized information validated by legitimate instances and uncommitted information have become permeable; finally, because it appears to be central within relations between actors in the field. In this book, we propose to address the trust in terms of the information and communication phenomena that are at work in the health sector, and to look at the process of building the legitimacy of information in the health sector. health.
Computational mechanics is the discipline concerned with the use of computational methods to study phenomena governed by the principles of mechanics. Before the emergence of computational science (also called scientific computing) as a "third way" besides theoretical and experimental sciences, computational mechanics was widely considered to be a sub-discipline of applied mechanics. It is now considered to be a sub-discipline within computational science.
This book presents a recent state of the art on the foundations and applications of the meshless natural element method in computational mechanics, including structural mechanics and material forming processes involving solids and Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.
This book summarizes the key Quality of Service technologies deployed in telecommunications networks: Ethernet, IP, and MPLS. The QoS of the network is made up of two parts: fault and resource management.
Network operation quality is among the functions to be fulfilled in order to offer QoS to the end user. It is characterized by four parameters: packet loss, delay, jitter or the variation of delay over time, and availability. Resource management employs mechanisms that enable the first three parameters to be guaranteed or optimized. Fault management aims to ensure continuity of service.
The field of Home Area Networks (HAN), a dedicated residential subset of LAN technologies for home-based use, is fast becoming the next frontier for the communications industry.
This book describes the various technologies involved in the implementation of a HAN: high-speed Internet connections, indoor implementations, services, software, and management packages. It also reviews multimedia applications (which are increasingly the most important and complex aspects of most HANs) with a detailed description of IPTV technology. It highlights the main technologies used for HANs: information transmission by means of copper pairs, coaxial cables, fiber optics, and Wi-Fi radio systems, as well as the software systems necessary for the processing and management of these data communications. These technologies - examples of which include the well-known 802.11 family of standards, and less widespread applications such as the HomePlug powerline standard - are highly relevant to multimedia, remote healthcare, remote working, energy, and device management in the home.
The book is written for engineers working in the field, or who are interested in high-speed communication technologies and their actual or potential use in the home or in the small - medium size enterprise (SME) commercial environment.
This work presents ad hoc networks and their characteristics. It explains a new protocol of routing with QoS as well as its implementation in a network simulator and compares it with the existing protocols. The book discusses the principle of the load balancing, treats the approaches of optimization of energy, and proposes a new approach with an analytical model that gives a better performance.
It is currently quite easy for students or designers/engineers to find very general books on the various aspects of safety, reliability and dependability of computer system architectures, and partial treatments of the elements that comprise an effective system architecture. It is not so easy to find a single source reference for all these aspects of system design. However, the purpose of this book is to present, in a single volume, a full description of all the constraints (including legal contexts around performance, reliability norms, etc.) and examples of architectures from various fields of application, including: railways, aeronautics, space, automobile and industrial automation.
The content of the book is drawn from the experience of numerous people who are deeply immersed in the design and delivery (from conception to test and validation), safety (analysis of safety: FMEA, HA, etc.) and evaluation of critical systems. The involvement of real world industrial applications is handled in such as a way as to avoid problems of confidentiality, and thus allows for the inclusion of new, useful information (photos, architecture plans/schematics, real examples).
This book provides answers to the following problems: how to identify the most probable critical failures; how to describe and use data-concerning materials that are either heterogeneous, time-variant, or space-variant; how to quantify the reliability and lifetime of a system; how to use feedback information to actualize reliability results; and how to optimize an inspection politic or a maintenance strategy. Numerous authors from public research centers and firms propose a synthesis of methods, both new and well-known, and offer numerous examples concerning dams, geotechnical study, and structures from nuclear and civil engineering.
This book concerns testing hypotheses in non-parametric models. Generalizations of many non-parametric tests to the case of censored and truncated data are considered. Most of the test results are proved and real applications are illustrated using examples. Theories and exercises are provided. The incorrect use of many tests applying most statistical software is highlighted and discussed.
This work is an initial exploration of the relationship between scanning and sustainable development. In ten chapters, the authors examine the application, characteristics and implementation of scanning oriented toward sustainable development. Thus the work offers some answers to the questions "what is sustainable scanning?", "what new issues does it raise for management practice and management science?", "what forms can it take?" and "how...?"
"Computing Networks" explores the core of the new distributed computing infrastructures we are using today: the networking systems of clusters, grids and clouds. It helps network designers and distributed-application developers and users to better understand the technologies, specificities, constraints and benefits of these different infrastructures' communication systems.
Cloud Computing will give the possibility for millions of users to process data anytime, anywhere, while being eco-friendly. In order to deliver this emerging traffic in a timely, cost-efficient, energy-efficient, and reliable manner over long-distance networks, several issues such as quality of service, security, metrology, network-resource scheduling and virtualization are being investigated since 15 years. "Computing Networks" explores the core of clusters, grids and clouds networks, giving designers, application developers and users the keys to better construct and use these powerful infrastructures.
The book presents some key mathematical tools for the performance analysis of communication networks and computer systems.
Communication networks and computer systems have become extremely complex. The statistical resource sharing induced by the random behavior of users and the underlying protocols and algorithms may affect Quality of Service.
This book introduces the main results of queuing theory that are useful for analyzing the performance of these systems. These mathematical tools are key to the development of robust dimensioning rules and engineering methods. A number of examples illustrate their practical interest.