Founded in 2007 to fund basic research, the European Research Council (ERC) has become the most revered instrument in European science policy and one of the world's most important focal points for the funding of scientific research. Its grants are much sought-after by researchers and scholars and it is widely considered to have had a major impact on research communities and institutions across Europe. How did this remarkable organization, the creation of which was widely regarded as a miracle', come into being, what has it achieved and how is it likely to adapt in the face of current and future challenges?
This book is the first comprehensive history of the creation and development of the ERC. Drawing on first-hand knowledge, Thomas Knig gives a detailed account of how a group of strong-minded European scientists succeeded in creating the ERC by pushing for a single goal: more money for scientific research with fewer strings attached. But he also shows how this campaign would have failed had it not been taken up by skilful officials of the European Commission, who recognized the ERC as a way to gain more influence in shaping European science policy. Once established, the ERC developed a carefully crafted self-image that emphasized its reliance on peer review and its differences from all other EU research programmes.
In addition to analysing the creation and development of the ERC, this book critically examines its achievements and its claims. It also explores the implications of the rise of the ERC and the challenges and threats that it faces today, engaging with broader questions concerning the relationship of politics, science, and money at the beginning of the 21st century. It will be essential reading for all scholars and students of science policy, for decision-makers and administrators across Europe, and for researchers and academics looking to engage with and understand the ERC.
Dieses China-Buch gewährt Ihnen einen tiefen Einblick in die Wirtschaft und Kultur des Landes
China entwickelt sich mehr und mehr zur stärksten Macht auf dem Weltmarkt. Der Wissensdruck steigt für viele deutsche Betriebe, da es in Zeiten von Internationalisierung und Globalisierung fast unumgänglich ist, Geschäftsbeziehungen mit chinesischen Unternehmen einzugehen. Dabei hilft dieses Buch über China, indem es fachkundig wichtige Informationen über Kultur, Politik und Wirtschaft des Landes gibt. Die Autoren kombinieren dabei persnliche Erfahrungsberichte mit objektiven Analysen und schaffen so einen interessanten Mix aus Fakten und eigener Sachkenntnis. Dabei konzentrieren sie sich unter anderem auf die folgenden Inhalte: Wirtschaftswachstum im Reich der Mitte
Komplexität und Vielfalt in der Gesellschaft
Mängel des chinesischen Bildungssystem
Innovationen aus China
Gleichzeitig geben Agten und Knig wertvolle Tipps im Umgang mit der Kultur Chinas, was unerlässlich für Geschäftsbesuche, Meetings und private Beziehungen ist. So lernen Unternehmer, Führungskräfte und Mitarbeiter nicht nur wirtschaftliche Fakten über das Land, sondern auch die Voraussetzungen für ein erfolgreiches kulturell-soziales Miteinander kennen.
Für Unternehmen, aber auch für Privatpersonen geeignet
Dieses Buch über China richtet sich hauptsächlich an Unternehmer, da es die Geschäftsbeziehungen zwischen deutschen und chinesischen Betrieben aufgreift und wichtige Tipps liefert, die das Verständnis zwischen beiden Nationen frdern. Gleichzeitig ist es aber auch für Privatpersonen und Reisende geeignet, die einen Urlaub ins Land der Mitte planen oder sich einfach generell dafür interessieren.
George Tsebelis' veto players approach has become a prominent theory to analyze various research questions in political science. Studies that apply veto player theory deal with the impact of institutions and partisan preferences of legislative activity and policy outcomes. It is used to measure the degree of policy change and, thus, reform capacity in national and international political systems. This volume contains the analysis of leading scholars in the field on these topics and more recent developments regarding theoretical and empirical progress in the area of political reform-making. The contributions come from research areas of political science where veto player theory plays a significant role, including, positive political theory, legislative behavior and legislative decision-making in national and supra-national political systems, policy making and government formation. The contributors to this book add to the current scholarly and public debate on the role of veto players, making it of interest to scholars in political science and policy studies as well as policymakers worldwide.
In ten years 80 per cent of the legislation related to economics, maybe also to taxes and social aff airs, will be of Community origin." This declaration has been largely quoted, paraphrased and deformed by different authors, creating a persistent myth according to which 80% of the legislative activity of the national legislatures would soon be reduced to the simple transposition of European norms". This book addresses the topic of the scope and impact of Europeanization on national legislation, as a part of the Europeanization debate which raises normative concerns linked to the "democratic deficit" debate. The state of the art shows that there are many assumptions and claims on how European integration may affect national legislation and, more generally, domestic governance but that there is a lack of solid and comparative data to test them. The aim of the book is to give a solid and comparative insight into Europeanization focusing on effective outcomes in a systematic way. This book analyzes the period 1986-2008 and includes an introduction, a global overview of European legislative activities which set the background for Europeanization of national legislatures, 9 country contributions (8 EU member states + Switzerland) including systematic, comparative and standardized data, tables and figures, and a conclusion with a comparative analysis of the European and domestic reasons for Europeanization.All national contributions conclude that Europeanization of national legislation is much more limited than assumed in the literature and public debate. It is limited to 10 to 30% of laws (depending on the country), far less than the 80% predicted by Jacques Delors and mentioned daily by medias and public opinion leaders to demonstrate EU domination on member states. Beside that general statement, the various chapters propose a deep insight on EU constraint over national legislation, providing much information on the kind of laws and policies that are Europeanized, the evolution of this process through time, the impact of Europeanization on the balance of powers and the relations between majority and opposition at national level, the strategies developed by national institutions in that context, and many other issues, making the book of interest to academics and policy-makers concerned with Europeanization and national legislation.
During the last decade developments in 3D Geoinformation have made substantial progress. We are about to have a more complete spatial model and understanding of our planet in different scales. Hence, various communities and cities offer 3D landscape and city models as valuable source and instrument for sustainable management of rural and urban resources. Also municipal utilities, real estate companies etc. benefit from recent developments related to 3D applications. To meet the challenges due to the newest changes academics and practitioners met at the 5th International Workshop on 3D Geoinformation in order to present recent developments and to discuss future trends. This book comprises a selection of evaluated, high quality papers that were presented at this workshop in November 2010. The topics focus explicitly on the last achievements (methods, algorithms, models, systems) with respect to 3D geo-information requirements. The book is aimed at decision makers and experts as well at students interested in the 3D component of geographical information science including GI engineers, computer scientists, photogrammetrists, land surveyors, urban planners, and mapping specialists.