Michael Roy

  • Prisonnier politique de 1848, Léon Chautard traverse l'Atlantique pour mener son combat révolutionnaire. Cet itinéraire témoigne avec force des influences entre les mouvements sociaux en France et aux États-Unis, du combat populaire pour l'abolition de l'esclavage, de la communauté de destins entre les clubs de Montmartre et de ceux de Boston en pleine Guerre de sécession.
    Le socialiste Léon Chautard est arrêté dans la foulée des journées de juin 1848 et " transporté " de Montmartre à Belle-Île, puis d'Algérie et au bagne de Cayenne en 1852, dont il réussit à s'évader. Après des pérégrinations au Surinam hollandais et en Guyane anglaise, il trouve refuge aux États-Unis en 1857 où, au contact du milieu abolitionniste, il écrit et publie le récit de son évasion.
    Cette trajectoire singulière témoigne avec force des influences réciproques et des réseaux de solidarité entre les mouvements révolutionnaires en France et aux États-Unis. Elle est aussi emblématique du combat républicain et antiraciste pour l'abolition de l'esclavage en métropole et outre-mer, ainsi que de la communauté de destins entre les clubs de Montmartre et les cercles militants de Boston, à la veille de la guerre de Sécession. Au coeur du xixe siècle insurgé, le récit de Léon Chautard pose en outre un jalon dans l'émergence d'une littérature de témoignage à la croisée du roman picaresque et du récit d'esclave, dont Frederick Douglass, Solomon Northup ou Nat Turner sont aujourd'hui les représentants les plus connus. En situation d'exil politique, le narrateur s'inscrit dans la lignée d'une parole populaire à laquelle il s'associe en tant qu'homme blanc, socialiste et européen.
    Michaël Roy qui a trouvé, traduit et documenté ce texte ouvre la voie pour une histoire de l'abolitionnisme dont les acteurs internationaux furent aussi bien métropolitains et ultramarins, blancs et noirs, bourgeois et ouvriers.

  • Contrairement aux esclaves des colonies françaises, les esclaves américains ont laissé de nombreux récits autobiographiques, parus pour la plupart dans les décennies ayant précédé la guerre de Sécession. Comment des hommes et des femmes parfois à peine rescapés des plantations sudistes sont-ils parvenus à (faire) écrire puis à publier le récit de leur servitude ? À partir d'études de cas portant sur des récits d'esclaves connus - ceux de Frederick Douglass ou Harriet Jacobs - et moins connus, Textes fugitifs met à profit les outils de l'histoire du livre pour éclairer les circonstances de publication, de circulation et de réception de ces textes fondateurs de la tradition littéraire africaine-américaine.

  • Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptor, is critical in the control of food intake and energy balance. The ghrelin receptors are now known to have important physiological properties as modulators of growth hormone release, appetite, glucose homeostasis, metabolism, immune function, neurotransmitter activity, cognitive function and neurodegeneration. Bringing all of this information together in the first comprehensive text on the topic, Ghrelin in Health and Disease provides a state-of-the-art synthesis of the latest work in this area for physicians and physician-scientists. This volume addresses the unique property of ghrelin as a modulator of function. Such a property provides potential utility for safe intervention in a wide variety of disease states. Indeed as we learn more about the basic physiology of ghrelin, the potential for treating new disease targets emerge requiring validation in the clinic. Each chapter in this volume is authored by a leading investigator in the field. The introductory chapter sets the background for the book and provides a superb overview of the relevance of ghrelin to physiology, describing how the discovery of ghrelin has prompted us to completely rethink traditional physiology. The authors conclude their chapters by critically addressing the future translational aspects of ghrelin biology and outlining what key basic research and clinical questions remain to be addressed. An invaluable resource, Ghrelin in Health and Disease distinguishes itself as the first comprehensive title covering all of the molecular and clinical issues relating to ghrelin and advancing our clinical understanding of obesity, growth, and reproductive pathogenesis.

  • L'édition du printemps du magazine Histoire Québec présente des réflexions sur les chemins et canaux anciens ayant fait l'objet de conférences lors des Journées d'échange Paysages du mouvement / Paysages en mouvement tenues en octobre dernier. Découvrez le « Sentier des Jésuites » ( Érik Langevin). Informez-vous sur la mobilité w8banaki et la privatisation du Ndakina (Jean-Nicolas Plourde), le canal Lachine (Matthieu Paradis et Alain Gelly), le patrimoine paysager du corridor autoroutier de la Transcanadienne dans deux parcs nationaux (Gwénaëlle Le Parlouër) ou l'autoroute 85 dans le Témiscouata (Ghislain Gagnon). Voyez comment le Sault-des-Chats est mis en valeur (Maude-Emmanuelle Lambert et Michael McBane) et comment le chemin du Portage est un vecteur de mémoire (Billy Rioux). Réfléchissez sur le patrimoine des chemins anciens (Alain Roy), sur le deuxième portage des Chaudières à Gatineau (Sylvie Turcotte, Alain Roy et Olivier Côté) ou encore sur l'avenir du paysage (Richard M. Bégin).

  • Undoing Slavery : American Abolitionism in Transnational Perspective (1776-1865) is a collection of seven essays by leading and emerging scholars of abolition in France. Contributors to the volume situate American abolitionism in a transnational framework, pointing out how slaves running away to Canada, free African Americans emigrating to Haiti and activists meeting in a Paris salon all influenced the fate of slavery in the United States. In the wake of recent historiographical trends, they extend not only the geography but also the chronology of abolitionism, attending to its development and evolutions over the longue durée. Special emphasis is also placed on the varied print culture of abolition, from antislavery novels, newspapers, gift books and almanacs to black-authored pamphlets and printed orations on the abolition of the slave trade.
    Undoing Slavery is prefaced by Manisha Sinha, author of the award-winning The Slave's Cause: A History of Abolition.

  • This book examines a selection of themes that have become salient in contemporary debates on constitutional democracies. It focuses in particular on the experiences of India and Germany as examples of post-war and post-colonial constitutional democracies whose trajectories illustrate democratic transitions and transformative constitutionalism. While transformative constitutionalism has come to be associated specifically with the post-apartheid experience in South Africa, this book uses the transformative as an analytical framework to transcend the dichotomy of west and east and explore how temporally coincident constitutions have sought to install constitutional democracies by breaking with the past. While the constitution-making processes in the two countries were specific to their political contexts, the constitutional promises and futures converged. In this context, the book explores the themes of Constitutionalism, Nationalism, Secularism, Sovereignty and Rule of Law, Freedoms and Rights, to investigate how the contestations over democratic transitions and democratic futures have unfolded in the two democracies. It offers readers valuable insights into how the normative frameworks of constitutional democracy take concrete form at specific sites of democratic and constitutional imagination in Dalit and Islamic writings, as well as the relationship between state and religion in the writings of public intellectuals, political and legal philosophers. The book also focuses on specific sites of contestation in democracies including the relationship between sovereignty and citizenship in post-colonial India, free speech and sedition in liberal democracies, questions of land rights in connection with economic and political changes in contemporary contexts, and the rights of indigenous communities with regard to international conventions and domestic law. Given its scope, it will be of interest to students and scholars of political theory, political philosophy, comparative constitutionalism, law and human rights.

  • Anglais Gold

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    • Polity
    • 4 February 2021

    Gold remains a highly prized and impactful resource within the global economy. From the insatiable demand for gold in the electronics that permeate our day-to-day lives to the environmental desolation driven by gold mining in the Amazon, the gold trade continues to touch the lives and livelihoods of people across the world. Bloomfield and Maconachie tell the intriguing story of the yellow metal, tracing the seismic shifts in the industry over the past few decades. They show how huge purchases of gold reserves by BRICS countries mark the shifting balance of power away from the West, and how rising affluence in India and China has led to a surging demand for gold jewellery, calling into question current approaches to make supply chains more responsible. Explaining why gold is so difficult to regulate and why it is only becoming more so, the authors suggest ways we could, collectively, make practices work better for the countless workers and communities who suffer at the producer end of the supply chain. Linking local to global, producer to consumer, and gold's extraction from the Earth to the financial centres that fuel it, this book offers a probing analysis that reveals who wins and who loses and what this means for the future of gold.

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